In a speech of one of the foremost African intellectuals and revolutionary leaders, titled ‘The Weapon of Theory’, delivered to the first Tri-continental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January 1966, Amilcar Cabral talked about the struggle against our own weaknesses. On that occasion, he said that in the general framework of daily struggle this battle against ourselves — no matter what difficulties the enemy may create — is the most difficult of all, whether for the present or the future of our peoples because it represents the expression of the internal contradictions in the economic, social, cultural (and therefore historical) reality of each of our African countries. Cabral went further to say, “We are convinced that any national or social revolution which is not based on knowledge of this fundamental reality runs grave risk of being condemned to failure.” According to Cabral, the ideological deficiency, not to say the total lack of ideology, within the national liberation movements which is basically due to ignorance of the historical reality that these movements claimed to transform constitutes one of the greatest weaknesses of the struggle, if not the greatest weakness of all.
Cabral was one of the founders of the Independent African Party (PAI), which later became PAIGC with Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. He was even a founder member of MPLA and FRELIMO and participated in the war against the apartheid regime’s invasion of Angola. In fact, he introduced Dr Agostinho Neto to the Cubans and used his airfields in Guinea Bissau as transit bases for the Cuban internationalist forces. Cabral explains that on the effects of foreign domination on the social structure and historical process of our peoples, there are at least two forms: the first is direct domination called colonialism and the second is indirect domination called neo-colonialism. In the latter, the dominant external forces’ action takes the form of creating a local bourgeoisie or pseudo-bourgeoisie, which accentuates the differences between the social strata in the economic system (compradores). However, both in colonialism and in neo-colonialism, the essential characteristic of domination remains the same: the negation of the historical process of the dominated people by means of violent usurpation of the freedom of development of the national productive forces. This observation seems to be of major importance for the thought and action of liberation movements, both in the course of the struggle and after winning independence.
It is true that it is often said that national liberation is based on the right of every people to freely control its own destiny and that the objective of this liberation is national independence. Although Cabral does not disagree with this vague and subjective way of expressing a complex reality, he prefers to be objective, since for him the basis of national liberation is the inalienable right of every people to have its own history and the objective of national liberation is to regain this right usurped, that is to say, to free the process of development of the national productive forces. At the occasion of the launching of the party school, the SWAPO Party Secretary for Information and Mobilisation, Helmut Angula, put it eloquently when he said the economic contradictions in an antagonistic society will exist as long as the workers do not come up with their own leadership. Nevertheless, I do not agree with him when he describes the ideology of the SWAPO Party in such simplistic terms as a revolutionary party. According to Cabral, our ideology comes from our culture, which in itself is informed by our history. Thus, the SWAPO Party, as the leader of the national democratic struggle, should be described as a force of the left, organised to conduct consistent struggle in pursuit of the interests of the poor and the working masses of our people since SWAPO was created by workers at the mines of Tsumeb and Oranjemund, the fishing factories in Walvisbay and Luderitz as well as the service industries in Windhoek and later joined by the rural communities, who were deeply affected by the war machinery and brutality of apartheid.
Therefore, SWAPO should never be disassociated from its original mandate of liberating the workers and the rural poor but should consistently advance the struggle for quality jobs and job security; build national solidarity among all sectors of workers; contribute strategically to the building of the developmental state, including the eradication of poverty by engaging capital in ensuring a national developmental vision that contributes towards thoroughgoing socio-economic transformation and fight patriarchal relations of production and reproduction that continue to oppress women, the youth including farm labourers, domestic workers, security guards and service stations petrol attendants. This means that the principal aspect of national liberation struggle is the struggle against neo-colonialism and the comprador pseudo bourgeoisie which at times exploit tribal solidarity to demobilise a considerable part of the nationalist forces. Cabral concludes that the colonial situation can lead, at least, to a nationalist solution; the nation gains its independence. However, the neo-colonial situation is not resolved by a nationalist solution; it demands the reform of the exploitative structure implanted in the national territory in order to regain the right usurped, that is to say, to free the process of development of the national productive forces.
Indeed, the explosion of the neoliberal system in the West caused by deep xenophobic roots is just the peak of an iceberg melting for the neoliberal elites who opted for symbolic crumbs with their myopic careerism that prevented any serious critique of Obama’s and others neo-liberalism. This is why moral and spiritual dimensions of social activism and vintage neo-populist platforms represented by the Black Lives Matter and the Bernie Sanders’ campaigns is coming to the rescue of the vulnerable crushed by greed and indifference of the elite. I therefore propose that our vision should be informed by an approach that suggests that having concluded our first transition with its focus on democratisation, we need a vision for a second transition that must focus on the social and economic transformation of the country through a democratic developmental state to intervene in the economy and renegotiate a better deal for our mineral resources. Cabral ka muri, Cabral ká tá more (Cabral is not dead; Cabral will never die) Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of my employer and this newspaper but solely reflect my personal views as a citizen.